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Russia and Kazakhstan: mutual dependency factors

photo: kremlin.ru
22 August 2022
Yuri SolozobovYuri Solozobov

Yuri Solozobov

Candidate of Science, Physics and Mathematics, Regional Programs Director of CISS

The Presidents of Russia and Kazakhstan had a working meeting in Sochi to discuss the strategic cooperation issues.

Summit talks

The key summit outcome reflected in the media was a public announcement that there were no grounds for pessimistic forecasts of future cooperation of our two countries. Ruslan Zheldibay, the spokesman for the President of Kazakhstan, said that negotiations went on in «exclusively friendly environment». Kassym-Jomart Tokayev expressed his satisfaction with the outcomes of the summit in Sochi and commented that the issues of «cooperation in trade, economic, investment and humanitarian spheres» had been discussed, as well as interaction of the two countries on the global stage. The previous meeting of the two leaders during the Saint-Petersburg International Economic Forum (SPIEF) is remembered by a rather tense atmosphere, which the media brought into the focus. Hence, this time both parties did their best to demonstrate there was no serious  disagreement between the EAEU partners and CSTO allies. [1]

Let us remind here, that at SPIEF President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev stated that Kazakhstan would not recognize the sovereignty of Donetsk and Lugansk PeopleТs Republics (like it did not recognize the sovereignty of Taiwan and Kosovo). [2] At the same time, Tokayev spoke rigorously about some Russian politicians and media, which criticized some representatives of Kazakhstan leadership for nationalism. After SPIEF, the operations of the Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC) were temporarily suspended (Kazakhstan uses this pipeline to export its crude oil to the West via Russian territory).

Nur-Sultan immediately started looking for the ways to diversify the export supplies routes. According to Reuters, Kazakhstan authorities decided to supply part of the crude oil via Baku Ц Tbilisi Ц Ceyhan pipeline bypassing Russia. Some sources claim that the theme of crude oil export from Kazakhstan was discussed in Sochi, and it will also be on the agenda during the forthcoming TokayevТs visit to Baku.

As we already stated previously, the key reason for certain misunderstanding between Moscow and Nur-Sultan is the gap in political and expert communications. It means that in Kazakhstan they ceased to understand what Russia wanted, and in Russia they were seeing Kazakhstan exclusively through the optics of Russian media. To put it simply, the mutual agenda today is defined by the most «yellow journalism». On top of that, there is practically no systemic analytical work and no on-going monitoring of social and political situation in the neighboring countries. All this is going on in the context of excellent relations between the leaders of the two countries, the steadily growing sales turnover and successful cross-border trading, given the positive mutual attitude of the Russians and the Kazakhs. This results in the growing risk of spontaneous crisis due to mere misunderstanding, and the hysteria in the media may cause this crisis to turn into serious problems of the bilateral relations.

That is why regular meetings of the leaders of our neighboring countries are so important: they allow for not just for formal «synchronization of watches», but for the possibility to discuss the most sensitive issues of strategic partnership one-on-one. The analysts emphasize that it was the fifth personal meeting of Vladimir Putin and Kassym-Jomart Tokayev starting from early 2022. Both parties «expressed their mutual understanding of the fact that the authorities of both countries should be earnestly implementing the agreements achieved at the level of the heads of states». It means that such top-level agreements will become a meaningful priority for the entire power vertical. In view of this, it makes sense to discuss in detail, which systemic mutual dependency factors besides the will of the leaders underpin the alliance of Russia and Kazakhstan.

Common frontier

At the summit in Sochi, the leader of Kazakhstan reminded that «we are united by a common frontier». «This is the longest land frontier in the world, and it is delimited, by the way. Hence, there are no grounds for pessimistic forecasts with respect to our future cooperation», Kassym-Jomart Tokayev summarized. [3] Being an experienced diplomat, Tokayev purposefully added this important term «delimited» to the traditional propaganda clichй about the «friendship boundaries». Delimitation means defining the state frontier by way of bilateral negotiations with detailed description and fixation in an international treaty. Any change of the delimited frontier is a gross violation of the international law and may become a casus belli.

The delimited state frontier line first is put on the map, and then the frontier pillars are installed during a lengthy demarcation procedure. The demarcation of the state frontier between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation (7,548 km) is still in progress. As per official data, 6,696 km were demarcated so far (89% of the total state frontier length, 5,066 frontier pillars), and is expected to be finished «during the next several years». [4] It means, that there are still some sections of the frontier with missing pillars, not to mention its full-fledged military and technical infrastructure requiring enormous funds. It is practically impossible to close the 7.5 thousand km frontier Ч it should only be a peaceful border.

Economic ties

At the summit in Sochi both Presidents stated that the trade and economic cooperation between Russia and Kazakhstan was successfully progressing. «Last year the trade volumes constituted USD 24.5 bn. Russia holds the number one position in our foreign trade», Kassym-Jomart Tokayev emphasized. In its turn, Vladimir Putin reminded: «We are also implementing major projects, cooperating in hi-tec areas, including outer space». According to the Russian Embassy to the Republic of Kazakhstan, the cumulative investment of Russia in Kazakhstan makes USD 43 bn. This is a two-way road, because Kazakhstan is actively investing into Russia. Even with account of the lockdown and new sanctions, Russia remains the key partner of Kazakhstan in foreign trade with a share of almost 20%.

In the recent years, special focus was given to strengthening direct connections between enterprises in Russian and Kazakhstan regions. Almost 70% of the entire Russian-Kazakhstan sales turnover is attributed to the cross-border trade. Currently, 76 out of 85 constituent entities of the Russian Federation have trade and economic ties with Kazakhstan partners. Moscow and Saint Petersburg account for the biggest volumes, as well as autonomous republics of the Volga region Ц Tatarstan and Bashkortostan. Economic relations with Kazakhstan are extremely important for such regions of Russia Kemerovo, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Samara, Sverdlovsk and Chelyabinsk regions. The economy of many Russian regions, especially of the ones near the state frontier in the South of Siberia, depends on the good neighborly relations with Kazakhstan.

It is important to note that the non-resource exports prevail in the supplies from Russia to Kazakhstan: machines, equipment and transport vehicles have a share of 25.9% (USD 3.5 bn), chemical products and rubbers Ц 15.9% (USD 2.1 bn), food products and agricultural supplies Ц 15.5% (USD 2.1 bn), metals and articles made therefrom Ц 14.8% (USD 2 bn). Kazakhstan, in its turn, send mainly mineral products to Russia Ц 42.4% of the entire mix (USD 2.1 bn). For example, oil-an-gas provides for 40% of Kazakhstan budget revenues, and 80% of all the crude oil export goes via the territory of Russia (Caspian Pipeline Consortium [CPC], in which the Russian Federation has the major stake of 31%). The alternative export routes for Kazakhstan oil are via Baku port, the pipeline to China or by rail to Uzbekistan Ц cannot be compared with the CPC in volumes, price and speed of delivery. [5]

The Russian Federation is the major exporter of the first necessity commodities to Kazakhstan Ц food, textiles, hygiene and cosmetic items. Thus, Russia is among the three major foreign suppliers of food products for Kazakhstan. Our country supplies more than 25% of imported meat products, one third of dairy products, one fifth of tea, two thirds of sugar and confectionery, almost three fourths of vegetable oil and chocolate. It means that currently Kazakhstan does not fully provide food for itself. There are some goods of local origin, which Kazakhstan has enough of (flour, eggs, rice), but its dependency on Russia is critical as far as some important items Ц such as oils, sugar and milk. [6]

Anti-Russian sanctions imposed by the West introduced some dramatic change in the traditional logistics of export and import supplies. Even though Kazakhstan officials claimed that they would not be assisting Moscow in by-passing the Western sanctions, Kazakhstan together with Turkey and Uzbekistan became the major supplier of the missing products to the RF. At the summit in Sochi the President talked about «additional assignments» to their governments, which may be connected with the «parallel imports» expansion.

The transit imperative

The unique geographic location of our two countries is among the key factors contributing to strengthening the bilateral relations of Russia and Kazakhstan. It includes the above-mentioned lengthy frontier, their position in-between the West and the East, and the objective necessity to use the territory of the neighboring country for transit. Two transit arterial roads connecting China and European Union and essential for Russia go through the territory of Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan is a narrow «bottleneck» for implementing the projects of the Great Silk Road. For Kazakhstan, Russia is the key transit route for 75% of its total export. Russia provides for Kazakhstan the possibility of exiting the «geopolitical sack», it is also a very important development factor in the EAEU format, It also provides for cultural and language interface for global connections.

Mutual transportation dependency of our countries is very well seen on the map of cargo traffic flows through Russian and Kazakh territories. The existing logistics and transportation infrastructure cannot be changed overnight. Alternative routes for supplying goods from Europe to Kazakhstan via Azerbaijan and Georgia are possible, but these options are more expensive, and the throughput of these channels is much lower compared to Russia. In future, the major part of logistical flows will go from China via Kazakhstan, because many manufacturing sites are located in China, and RoK has common frontier and railway connections with PRC. Nevertheless, Russian transit (for example, for goods coming from Turkey) will remain very important for Kazakhstan for many years ahead.

Kazakhstan holds a special place in the new plans of the RF leadership. Recently, President Putin presented a new international transport corridor (ITC) North - South to be created by Russia together with its allies from «the Caspian Five». Let us remind here, that ITC includes three routes: the transcaspian one stipulates for delivering cargos via Astrakhan and Makhachkala ports, the Western one Ч transportation via the territory of Azerbaijan to the border station Astara, the Eastern one Ч railway route from Russia connecting with the rail network of Iran. Russian shippers are interested mainly in the Eastern route. [7] It stipulates for cargos coming from India to the Iranian port of Bandar-Abbas, then transported by rail to the border crossings with Turkmenistan (Incheh Borun, Sarahs), and after that transit via Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan to Russia. The ITC project will allow for restoring the lost transportation chains and intensify the cargo turnover, even with account of the restrictions imposed by the USA and the EU.

«Fool proofing»

As we can see, the relations between Russia and Kazakhstan are of a long-term strategic character, they are the most advanced and the best developed among all other CIS countries. They are underpinned by an entire series of intrinsic factors at different levels Ц from geopolitics to geoeconomics, from strategic partnership to the cross-border trading. Unfortunately, not everyone in Kazakhstan and in Russia knows about the achieved level of bilateral cooperation and about the tremendous price that will have to be paid for breaking it. The current Russian-Kazakhstan relations are not widely covered by media, and only a narrow group of analysts and experts know the details. [8]

All the above-listed factors of mutual dependency of Russia and Kazakhstan need to be taken into account not only be the politicians and the decision-makers, but also by public figures and journalists. First of all, special «fool proofing» is need in the media sphere Ц set of proactive measures preventing the dissemination of false information about our bilateral cooperation. It seems that the priority media coverage of the strategic partnership of Russia and Kazakhstan should be clearly established for all the contacts: from the presidential to the regional level.

All this should restrain both parties from inconsiderate acts, harsh decisions and even mere negligence. This is required at least for keeping the bilateral relations at a stable allied level, so they do not follow the sad example of the Russian-Ukrainian «brotherly connections». This should not be given a free rein or narrowed down to regular contacts of the leaders of the two countries and to formal activities of ministries and agencies. Speaking from the experience, international friendship is too important to entrust it just to politicians and officials.

1. Tokayev expressed his satisfaction with the outcomes of negotiations with Putin in Sochi. TASS, 20.08.2022. https://tass.ru/mezhdunarodnaya-panorama/15520223

2. Assessments and narratives: the speech by the President of Kazakhstan at the 25th St.-Petersburg International Economic Forum. Caspian Institute for Strategic Studies, 20.06.2022. https://caspian.institute/product/sektor-kazahstana-kisi/vystuplenie-prezidenta-kazahstana-na-hkhv-peterburgskom-mezhduna-rodnom-ehkonomicheskom-forume-ocenki-i-smysly-38097.shtml

3. Meeting with Kassym-Jomart Tokayev, President of Kazakhstan. Official website of the RF President. http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/69182

4. When Kazakhstan is to finish the frontier demarcation process. Alau-TV, 17.08.2022. https://alau.kz/kogda-kazahstan-zavershit-process-demarkacii-granic/

5. The oil-and-gas sector accounts for 44% of Kazakhstan budget. Forbes Kazakhstan, 20.08.2022. https://forbes.kz/travels/schastlivyie_korolevstva_1660911644/

6. How anti-Russian sanctions will affect the trade of Kazakhstan. Kursiv Media, 18.03.2022. https://kz.kursiv.media/2022-03-18/kak-antirossijskie-sankcii-otrazyatsya-na-torgovle-kazahstana/

7. Russian Railways to expand in the Caspian corridor. The North Ц East rail corridor will accept cargos by-passing the anti-Russian sanctions imposed by the USA and the EU. Vgudok, 28.07.2022. https://vgudok.com/lenta/rzhd-razuyutsya-v-kaspiyskom-koridore-zheleznodorozhnyy-marshrut-sever-yug-primet-gruzy-v

8. Russia-Kazakhstan relations at the current stage. REGNUM, 09.12.2018. https://regnum.ru/news/polit/2534116.html

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Caspian Institute for Strategic Studies
Publications

Russia and Kazakhstan: mutual dependency factors

photo: kremlin.ru
22 августа 2022
Yuri Solozobov

Yuri Solozobov

Candidate of Science, Physics and Mathematics, Regional Programs Director of CISS

The Presidents of Russia and Kazakhstan had a working meeting in Sochi to discuss the strategic cooperation issues.

Summit talks

The key summit outcome reflected in the media was a public announcement that there were no grounds for pessimistic forecasts of future cooperation of our two countries. Ruslan Zheldibay, the spokesman for the President of Kazakhstan, said that negotiations went on in «exclusively friendly environment». Kassym-Jomart Tokayev expressed his satisfaction with the outcomes of the summit in Sochi and commented that the issues of «cooperation in trade, economic, investment and humanitarian spheres» had been discussed, as well as interaction of the two countries on the global stage. The previous meeting of the two leaders during the Saint-Petersburg International Economic Forum (SPIEF) is remembered by a rather tense atmosphere, which the media brought into the focus. Hence, this time both parties did their best to demonstrate there was no serious  disagreement between the EAEU partners and CSTO allies. [1]

Let us remind here, that at SPIEF President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev stated that Kazakhstan would not recognize the sovereignty of Donetsk and Lugansk PeopleТs Republics (like it did not recognize the sovereignty of Taiwan and Kosovo). [2] At the same time, Tokayev spoke rigorously about some Russian politicians and media, which criticized some representatives of Kazakhstan leadership for nationalism. After SPIEF, the operations of the Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC) were temporarily suspended (Kazakhstan uses this pipeline to export its crude oil to the West via Russian territory).

Nur-Sultan immediately started looking for the ways to diversify the export supplies routes. According to Reuters, Kazakhstan authorities decided to supply part of the crude oil via Baku Ц Tbilisi Ц Ceyhan pipeline bypassing Russia. Some sources claim that the theme of crude oil export from Kazakhstan was discussed in Sochi, and it will also be on the agenda during the forthcoming TokayevТs visit to Baku.

As we already stated previously, the key reason for certain misunderstanding between Moscow and Nur-Sultan is the gap in political and expert communications. It means that in Kazakhstan they ceased to understand what Russia wanted, and in Russia they were seeing Kazakhstan exclusively through the optics of Russian media. To put it simply, the mutual agenda today is defined by the most «yellow journalism». On top of that, there is practically no systemic analytical work and no on-going monitoring of social and political situation in the neighboring countries. All this is going on in the context of excellent relations between the leaders of the two countries, the steadily growing sales turnover and successful cross-border trading, given the positive mutual attitude of the Russians and the Kazakhs. This results in the growing risk of spontaneous crisis due to mere misunderstanding, and the hysteria in the media may cause this crisis to turn into serious problems of the bilateral relations.

That is why regular meetings of the leaders of our neighboring countries are so important: they allow for not just for formal «synchronization of watches», but for the possibility to discuss the most sensitive issues of strategic partnership one-on-one. The analysts emphasize that it was the fifth personal meeting of Vladimir Putin and Kassym-Jomart Tokayev starting from early 2022. Both parties «expressed their mutual understanding of the fact that the authorities of both countries should be earnestly implementing the agreements achieved at the level of the heads of states». It means that such top-level agreements will become a meaningful priority for the entire power vertical. In view of this, it makes sense to discuss in detail, which systemic mutual dependency factors besides the will of the leaders underpin the alliance of Russia and Kazakhstan.

Common frontier

At the summit in Sochi, the leader of Kazakhstan reminded that «we are united by a common frontier». «This is the longest land frontier in the world, and it is delimited, by the way. Hence, there are no grounds for pessimistic forecasts with respect to our future cooperation», Kassym-Jomart Tokayev summarized. [3] Being an experienced diplomat, Tokayev purposefully added this important term «delimited» to the traditional propaganda clichй about the «friendship boundaries». Delimitation means defining the state frontier by way of bilateral negotiations with detailed description and fixation in an international treaty. Any change of the delimited frontier is a gross violation of the international law and may become a casus belli.

The delimited state frontier line first is put on the map, and then the frontier pillars are installed during a lengthy demarcation procedure. The demarcation of the state frontier between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation (7,548 km) is still in progress. As per official data, 6,696 km were demarcated so far (89% of the total state frontier length, 5,066 frontier pillars), and is expected to be finished «during the next several years». [4] It means, that there are still some sections of the frontier with missing pillars, not to mention its full-fledged military and technical infrastructure requiring enormous funds. It is practically impossible to close the 7.5 thousand km frontier Ч it should only be a peaceful border.

Economic ties

At the summit in Sochi both Presidents stated that the trade and economic cooperation between Russia and Kazakhstan was successfully progressing. «Last year the trade volumes constituted USD 24.5 bn. Russia holds the number one position in our foreign trade», Kassym-Jomart Tokayev emphasized. In its turn, Vladimir Putin reminded: «We are also implementing major projects, cooperating in hi-tec areas, including outer space». According to the Russian Embassy to the Republic of Kazakhstan, the cumulative investment of Russia in Kazakhstan makes USD 43 bn. This is a two-way road, because Kazakhstan is actively investing into Russia. Even with account of the lockdown and new sanctions, Russia remains the key partner of Kazakhstan in foreign trade with a share of almost 20%.

In the recent years, special focus was given to strengthening direct connections between enterprises in Russian and Kazakhstan regions. Almost 70% of the entire Russian-Kazakhstan sales turnover is attributed to the cross-border trade. Currently, 76 out of 85 constituent entities of the Russian Federation have trade and economic ties with Kazakhstan partners. Moscow and Saint Petersburg account for the biggest volumes, as well as autonomous republics of the Volga region Ц Tatarstan and Bashkortostan. Economic relations with Kazakhstan are extremely important for such regions of Russia Kemerovo, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Samara, Sverdlovsk and Chelyabinsk regions. The economy of many Russian regions, especially of the ones near the state frontier in the South of Siberia, depends on the good neighborly relations with Kazakhstan.

It is important to note that the non-resource exports prevail in the supplies from Russia to Kazakhstan: machines, equipment and transport vehicles have a share of 25.9% (USD 3.5 bn), chemical products and rubbers Ц 15.9% (USD 2.1 bn), food products and agricultural supplies Ц 15.5% (USD 2.1 bn), metals and articles made therefrom Ц 14.8% (USD 2 bn). Kazakhstan, in its turn, send mainly mineral products to Russia Ц 42.4% of the entire mix (USD 2.1 bn). For example, oil-an-gas provides for 40% of Kazakhstan budget revenues, and 80% of all the crude oil export goes via the territory of Russia (Caspian Pipeline Consortium [CPC], in which the Russian Federation has the major stake of 31%). The alternative export routes for Kazakhstan oil are via Baku port, the pipeline to China or by rail to Uzbekistan Ц cannot be compared with the CPC in volumes, price and speed of delivery. [5]

The Russian Federation is the major exporter of the first necessity commodities to Kazakhstan Ц food, textiles, hygiene and cosmetic items. Thus, Russia is among the three major foreign suppliers of food products for Kazakhstan. Our country supplies more than 25% of imported meat products, one third of dairy products, one fifth of tea, two thirds of sugar and confectionery, almost three fourths of vegetable oil and chocolate. It means that currently Kazakhstan does not fully provide food for itself. There are some goods of local origin, which Kazakhstan has enough of (flour, eggs, rice), but its dependency on Russia is critical as far as some important items Ц such as oils, sugar and milk. [6]

Anti-Russian sanctions imposed by the West introduced some dramatic change in the traditional logistics of export and import supplies. Even though Kazakhstan officials claimed that they would not be assisting Moscow in by-passing the Western sanctions, Kazakhstan together with Turkey and Uzbekistan became the major supplier of the missing products to the RF. At the summit in Sochi the President talked about «additional assignments» to their governments, which may be connected with the «parallel imports» expansion.

The transit imperative

The unique geographic location of our two countries is among the key factors contributing to strengthening the bilateral relations of Russia and Kazakhstan. It includes the above-mentioned lengthy frontier, their position in-between the West and the East, and the objective necessity to use the territory of the neighboring country for transit. Two transit arterial roads connecting China and European Union and essential for Russia go through the territory of Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan is a narrow «bottleneck» for implementing the projects of the Great Silk Road. For Kazakhstan, Russia is the key transit route for 75% of its total export. Russia provides for Kazakhstan the possibility of exiting the «geopolitical sack», it is also a very important development factor in the EAEU format, It also provides for cultural and language interface for global connections.

Mutual transportation dependency of our countries is very well seen on the map of cargo traffic flows through Russian and Kazakh territories. The existing logistics and transportation infrastructure cannot be changed overnight. Alternative routes for supplying goods from Europe to Kazakhstan via Azerbaijan and Georgia are possible, but these options are more expensive, and the throughput of these channels is much lower compared to Russia. In future, the major part of logistical flows will go from China via Kazakhstan, because many manufacturing sites are located in China, and RoK has common frontier and railway connections with PRC. Nevertheless, Russian transit (for example, for goods coming from Turkey) will remain very important for Kazakhstan for many years ahead.

Kazakhstan holds a special place in the new plans of the RF leadership. Recently, President Putin presented a new international transport corridor (ITC) North - South to be created by Russia together with its allies from «the Caspian Five». Let us remind here, that ITC includes three routes: the transcaspian one stipulates for delivering cargos via Astrakhan and Makhachkala ports, the Western one Ч transportation via the territory of Azerbaijan to the border station Astara, the Eastern one Ч railway route from Russia connecting with the rail network of Iran. Russian shippers are interested mainly in the Eastern route. [7] It stipulates for cargos coming from India to the Iranian port of Bandar-Abbas, then transported by rail to the border crossings with Turkmenistan (Incheh Borun, Sarahs), and after that transit via Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan to Russia. The ITC project will allow for restoring the lost transportation chains and intensify the cargo turnover, even with account of the restrictions imposed by the USA and the EU.

«Fool proofing»

As we can see, the relations between Russia and Kazakhstan are of a long-term strategic character, they are the most advanced and the best developed among all other CIS countries. They are underpinned by an entire series of intrinsic factors at different levels Ц from geopolitics to geoeconomics, from strategic partnership to the cross-border trading. Unfortunately, not everyone in Kazakhstan and in Russia knows about the achieved level of bilateral cooperation and about the tremendous price that will have to be paid for breaking it. The current Russian-Kazakhstan relations are not widely covered by media, and only a narrow group of analysts and experts know the details. [8]

All the above-listed factors of mutual dependency of Russia and Kazakhstan need to be taken into account not only be the politicians and the decision-makers, but also by public figures and journalists. First of all, special «fool proofing» is need in the media sphere Ц set of proactive measures preventing the dissemination of false information about our bilateral cooperation. It seems that the priority media coverage of the strategic partnership of Russia and Kazakhstan should be clearly established for all the contacts: from the presidential to the regional level.

All this should restrain both parties from inconsiderate acts, harsh decisions and even mere negligence. This is required at least for keeping the bilateral relations at a stable allied level, so they do not follow the sad example of the Russian-Ukrainian «brotherly connections». This should not be given a free rein or narrowed down to regular contacts of the leaders of the two countries and to formal activities of ministries and agencies. Speaking from the experience, international friendship is too important to entrust it just to politicians and officials.

1. Tokayev expressed his satisfaction with the outcomes of negotiations with Putin in Sochi. TASS, 20.08.2022. https://tass.ru/mezhdunarodnaya-panorama/15520223

2. Assessments and narratives: the speech by the President of Kazakhstan at the 25th St.-Petersburg International Economic Forum. Caspian Institute for Strategic Studies, 20.06.2022. https://caspian.institute/product/sektor-kazahstana-kisi/vystuplenie-prezidenta-kazahstana-na-hkhv-peterburgskom-mezhduna-rodnom-ehkonomicheskom-forume-ocenki-i-smysly-38097.shtml

3. Meeting with Kassym-Jomart Tokayev, President of Kazakhstan. Official website of the RF President. http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/69182

4. When Kazakhstan is to finish the frontier demarcation process. Alau-TV, 17.08.2022. https://alau.kz/kogda-kazahstan-zavershit-process-demarkacii-granic/

5. The oil-and-gas sector accounts for 44% of Kazakhstan budget. Forbes Kazakhstan, 20.08.2022. https://forbes.kz/travels/schastlivyie_korolevstva_1660911644/

6. How anti-Russian sanctions will affect the trade of Kazakhstan. Kursiv Media, 18.03.2022. https://kz.kursiv.media/2022-03-18/kak-antirossijskie-sankcii-otrazyatsya-na-torgovle-kazahstana/

7. Russian Railways to expand in the Caspian corridor. The North Ц East rail corridor will accept cargos by-passing the anti-Russian sanctions imposed by the USA and the EU. Vgudok, 28.07.2022. https://vgudok.com/lenta/rzhd-razuyutsya-v-kaspiyskom-koridore-zheleznodorozhnyy-marshrut-sever-yug-primet-gruzy-v

8. Russia-Kazakhstan relations at the current stage. REGNUM, 09.12.2018. https://regnum.ru/news/polit/2534116.html